Creating a Netplan enabled system through Debian-Installer

With the work that has been done in the debian-installer/netcfg merge-proposal !9 it is possible to install a standard Debian system, using the normal Debian-Installer (d-i) mini.iso images, that will come pre-installed with Netplan and all network configuration structured in /etc/netplan/.

In this write-up, I’d like to run you through a list of commands for experiencing the Netplan enabled installation process first-hand. For now, we’ll be using a custom ISO image, while waiting for the above-mentioned merge-proposal to be landed. Furthermore, as the Debian archive is going through major transitions builds of the “unstable” branch of d-i don’t currently work. So I implemented a small backport, producing updated netcfg and netcfg-static for Bookworm, which can be used as localudebs/ during the d-i build.

Let’s start with preparing a working directory and installing the software dependencies for our virtualized Debian system:

$ mkdir d-i_bookworm && cd d-i_bookworm
$ apt install ovmf qemu-utils qemu-system-x86

Now let’s download the custom mini.iso, linux kernel image and initrd.gz containing the Netplan enablement changes, as mentioned above.

$ wget
$ wget
$ wget

Next we’ll prepare a VM, by copying the EFI firmware files, preparing some persistent EFIVARs file, to boot from FS0:\EFI\debian\grubx64.efi, and create a virtual disk for our machine:

$ cp /usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_CODE_4M.fd .
$ cp /usr/share/OVMF/OVMF_VARS_4M.fd .
$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 ./data.qcow2 5G

Finally, let’s launch the installer using a custom preseed.cfg file, that will automatically install Netplan for us in the target system. A minimal preseed file could look like this:

# Install minimal Netplan generator binary
d-i preseed/late_command string in-target apt-get -y install netplan-generator

For this demo, we’re installing the full package (incl. Python CLI), as the netplan-generator package was not yet split out as an independent binary in the Bookworm cycle. You can choose the preseed file from a set of different variants to test the different configurations:

We’re using the custom linux kernel and initrd.gz here to be able to pass the preseed URL as a parameter to the kernel’s cmdline directly. Launching this VM should bring up the normal debian-installer in its netboot/gtk form:

$ export U=
$ qemu-system-x86_64 \
	-M q35 -enable-kvm -cpu host -smp 4 -m 2G \
	-drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=0,file=OVMF_CODE_4M.fd,readonly=on \
	-drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=1,file=OVMF_VARS_4M.fd,readonly=off \
	-device qemu-xhci -device usb-kbd -device usb-mouse \
	-vga none -device virtio-gpu-pci \
	-net nic,model=virtio -net user \
	-kernel ./linux -initrd ./initrd.gz -append "url=$U" \
	-hda ./data.qcow2 -cdrom ./mini.iso;

Now you can click through the normal Debian-Installer process, using mostly default settings. Optionally, you could play around with the networking settings, to see how those get translated to /etc/netplan/ in the target system.

After you confirmed your partitioning changes, the base system gets installed. I suggest not to select any additional components, like desktop environments, to speed up the process.

During the final step of the installation (finish-install.d/55netcfg-copy-config) d-i will detect that Netplan was installed in the target system (due to the preseed file provided) and opt to write its network configuration to /etc/netplan/ instead of /etc/network/interfaces or /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/.

Done! After the installation finished, you can reboot into your virgin Debian Bookworm system.

To do that, quit the current Qemu process, by pressing Ctrl+C and make sure to copy over the EFIVARS.fd file that was written by grub during the installation, so Qemu can find the new system. Then reboot into the new system, not using the mini.iso image any more:

$ cp ./OVMF_VARS_4M.fd ./EFIVARS.fd
$ qemu-system-x86_64 \
        -M q35 -enable-kvm -cpu host -smp 4 -m 2G \
        -drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=0,file=OVMF_CODE_4M.fd,readonly=on \
        -drive if=pflash,format=raw,unit=1,file=EFIVARS.fd,readonly=off \
        -device qemu-xhci -device usb-kbd -device usb-mouse \
        -vga none -device virtio-gpu-pci \
        -net nic,model=virtio -net user \
        -drive file=./data.qcow2,if=none,format=qcow2,id=disk0 \
        -device virtio-blk-pci,drive=disk0,bootindex=1
        -serial mon:stdio

Finally, you can play around with your Netplan enabled Debian system! As you will find, /etc/network/interfaces exists but is empty, it could still be used (optionally/additionally). Netplan was configured in /etc/netplan/ according to the settings given during the d-i installation process.

In our case, we also installed the Netplan CLI, so we can play around with some of its features, like netplan status:

Thank you for following along the Netplan enabled Debian installation process and happy hacking! If you want to learn more, join the discussion at Salsa:installer-team/netcfg and find us at GitHub:netplan.

Netplan v1.0 paves the way to stable, declarative network management

New “netplan status –diff” subcommand, finding differences between configuration and system state

As the maintainer and lead developer for Netplan, I’m proud to announce the general availability of Netplan v1.0 after more than 7 years of development efforts. Over the years, we’ve so far had about 80 individual contributors from around the globe. This includes many contributions from our Netplan core-team at Canonical, but also from other big corporations such as Microsoft or Deutsche Telekom. Those contributions, along with the many we receive from our community of individual contributors, solidify Netplan as a healthy and trusted open source project. In an effort to make Netplan even more dependable, we started shipping upstream patch releases, such as 0.106.1 and 0.107.1, which make it easier to integrate fixes into our users’ custom workflows.

With the release of version 1.0 we primarily focused on stability. However, being a major version upgrade, it allowed us to drop some long-standing legacy code from the libnetplan1 library. Removing this technical debt increases the maintainability of Netplan’s codebase going forward. The upcoming Ubuntu 24.04 LTS and Debian 13 releases will ship Netplan v1.0 to millions of users worldwide.

Highlights of version 1.0

In addition to stability and maintainability improvements, it’s worth looking at some of the new features that were included in the latest release:

  • Simultaneous WPA2 & WPA3 support.
  • Introduction of a stable libnetplan1 API.
  • Mellanox VF-LAG support for high performance SR-IOV networking.
  • New hairpin and port-mac-learning settings, useful for VXLAN tunnels with FRRouting.
  • New netplan status –diff subcommand, finding differences between configuration and system state.

Besides those highlights of the v1.0 release, I’d also like to shed some light on new functionality that was integrated within the past two years for those upgrading from the previous Ubuntu 22.04 LTS which used Netplan v0.104:

  • We added support for the management of new network interface types, such as veth, dummy, VXLAN, VRF or InfiniBand (IPoIB). 
  • Wireless functionality was improved by integrating Netplan with NetworkManager on desktop systems, adding support for WPA3 and adding the notion of a regulatory-domain, to choose proper frequencies for specific regions. 
  • To improve maintainability, we moved to Meson as Netplan’s buildsystem, added upstream CI coverage for multiple Linux distributions and integrations (such as Debian testing, NetworkManager, snapd or cloud-init), checks for ABI compatibility, and automatic memory leak detection. 
  • We increased consistency between the supported backend renderers (systemd-networkd and NetworkManager), by matching physical network interfaces on permanent MAC address, when the match.macaddress setting is being used, and added new hardware offloading functionality for high performance networking, such as Single-Root IO Virtualisation virtual function link-aggregation (SR-IOV VF-LAG).

The much improved Netplan documentation, that is now hosted on “Read the Docs”, and new command line subcommands, such as netplan status, make Netplan a well vested tool for declarative network management and troubleshooting.


Those changes pave the way to integrate Netplan in 3rd party projects, such as system installers or cloud deployment methods. By shipping the new python3-netplan Python bindings to libnetplan, it is now easier than ever to access Netplan functionality and network validation from other projects. We are proud that the Debian Cloud Team chose Netplan to be the default network management tool in their official cloud-images for Debian Bookworm and beyond. Ubuntu’s NetworkManager package now uses Netplan as it’s default backend on Ubuntu 23.10 Desktop systems and beyond. Further integrations happened with cloud-init and the Calamares installer.

Please check out the Netplan version 1.0 release on GitHub! If you want to learn more, follow our activities on, GitHub, Launchpad, IRC or our Netplan Developer Diaries blog on discourse.

Digitales Lernen optimieren: die richtige Soft- und Hardware für das Studium

Die Digitalisierung hat das Studium tiefgreifend verändert. Mit der richtigen Hardware und Software können Sie Ihr Lernumfeld erheblich verbessern und Ihr Studium effizienter gestalten. Die Auswahl der passenden Tools ist jedoch nicht immer einfach. Unterschiedliche Studiengänge erfordern unterschiedliche technische Anforderungen, und der Markt ist voll von Optionen, die von hochleistungsfähigen Computern bis hin zu spezialisierter Lernsoftware reichen.

Hardware wählen: Welcher Laptop passt am besten zu Ihren Studienbedürfnissen?

Die Wahl des richtigen Laptops ist entscheidend für ein erfolgreiches Studium. Zuerst sollten Sie Ihre Studienanforderungen analysieren: Benötigen Sie einen leistungsstarken Prozessor und eine dedizierte Grafikkarte für technische oder grafikintensive Studiengänge? Oder ist ein leichter und langlebiger Laptop besser für Geisteswissenschaften, bei denen Portabilität und Akkulaufzeit wichtiger sind?

Berücksichtigen Sie auch die Betriebssysteme: Windows-PCs bieten eine breite Kompatibilität mit verschiedenen Softwareprogrammen, während Macs oft für ihre Zuverlässigkeit und intuitive Benutzeroberfläche geschätzt werden. Chromebooks könnten eine kostengünstige Option für Studierende sein, die hauptsächlich online arbeiten und Cloud-basierte Dienste nutzen.

Ein weiterer wichtiger Faktor ist die Ergonomie: Ein größerer Bildschirm und eine gut gestaltete Tastatur können lange Studiensitzungen komfortabler machen. Auch die Anschlussmöglichkeiten wie USB-Ports und HDMI-Ausgänge sind zu berücksichtigen, insbesondere wenn Sie externe Geräte anschließen müssen.

Softwarelösungen für effektives Lernen: Welche Anwendungen und Programme sollten Sie nutzen?

Effektives Lernen erfordert nicht nur die richtige Hardware, sondern auch die passende Software. Die Grundlage bildet oft ein verlässliches Office-Paket. Ein Office 2021 Key bietet beispielsweise Zugang zu essenziellen Anwendungen wie Word, Excel und PowerPoint, die für die Erstellung von Dokumenten, Analysen und Präsentationen unerlässlich sind. Darüber hinaus enthält das Office-Paket weitere hilfreiche Funktionen wie OneNote für effiziente Notizverwaltung und Outlook für eine nahtlose E-Mail- und Kalenderorganisation, die das Lernen und die Organisation im Studienalltag erheblich vereinfachen.

Für spezialisierte Studienfelder gibt es zudem fachspezifische Software. Informatikstudierende profitieren von integrierten Entwicklungsumgebungen (IDEs) und Programmiersoftware, während Grafikdesign-Studiengänge fortschrittliche Bildbearbeitungs- und Designprogramme benötigen.

Effiziente Studienorganisation und Zeitmanagement sind weitere Schlüsselelemente des digitalen Lernens. Hier helfen Kalender- und Aufgabenmanagement-Tools, Ihren Zeitplan zu strukturieren und Fristen einzuhalten. Nutzen Sie auch Cloud-Speicherlösungen, um auf Ihre Dateien von überall zugreifen zu können und sie sicher zu speichern.

Kostenoptimierung ohne Qualitätsverlust: Tipps zum Kauf von erschwinglicher Studenten-Hardware und -Software

Qualität und Budget sind wichtige Überlegungen beim Kauf von Studientechnologie. Sie müssen nicht unbedingt das teuerste Gerät kaufen, um eine gute Leistung zu erhalten. Schauen Sie nach Studentenrabatten und Sonderangeboten, die viele Hersteller und Softwareanbieter anbieten. Auch generalüberholte oder gebrauchte Geräte können eine kostengünstige Alternative zu neuen Modellen sein, ohne dabei an Leistung einzubüßen.

Bei der Software gibt es oft kostenlose oder vergünstigte Versionen für Studierende. Open-Source-Programme können eine hervorragende Alternative zu kommerziellen Anwendungen sein, insbesondere wenn Sie ein begrenztes Budget haben. Achten Sie jedoch darauf, dass diese Programme Ihren spezifischen Anforderungen entsprechen.

Das Auffinden von erschwinglicher, aber leistungsfähiger Hardware und Software erfordert oft etwas Recherche. Es lohnt sich, Bewertungen und Empfehlungen online zu prüfen, um ein Verständnis für das Preis-Leistungs-Verhältnis zu bekommen. Vergessen Sie nicht, sich in Foren oder bei Kommilitonen nach ihren Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen zu erkundigen. Häufig teilen Studierende dort wertvolle Informationen über erschwingliche Technologielösungen, die sie selbst erfolgreich nutzen.

Die besten Tools für die Organisation und Produktivität im Studium: Kalender, Notizen und mehr

Die Organisation ist der Schlüssel zum Erfolg im Studium. Digitale Kalender- und Planungstools wie Google Kalender oder Microsoft Outlook helfen Ihnen, Ihre Vorlesungen, Abgabetermine und Prüfungen im Blick zu behalten. Notiz-Apps wie Evernote oder OneNote ermöglichen es Ihnen, Informationen effizient zu sammeln und zu organisieren. Diese Tools bieten Funktionen wie das Kategorisieren von Notizen, das Einbinden von Multimedia-Inhalten und sogar handschriftliche Eingaben.

Letztendlich ist es wichtig, eine Balance zwischen Technologie und traditionellen Lernmethoden zu finden. Digitale Tools können das Lernen effizienter und organisierter machen, aber sie ersetzen nicht die Grundlagen guten Zeitmanagements und fokussierter Studiengewohnheiten.

Netplan brings consistent network configuration across Desktop, Server, Cloud and IoT

Ubuntu 23.10 “Mantic Minotaur” Desktop, showing network settings

We released Ubuntu 23.10 ‘Mantic Minotaur’ on 12 October 2023, shipping its proven and trusted network stack based on Netplan. Netplan is the default tool to configure Linux networking on Ubuntu since 2016. In the past, it was primarily used to control the Server and Cloud variants of Ubuntu, while on Desktop systems it would hand over control to NetworkManager. In Ubuntu 23.10 this disparity in how to control the network stack on different Ubuntu platforms was closed by integrating NetworkManager with the underlying Netplan stack.

Netplan could already be used to describe network connections on Desktop systems managed by NetworkManager. But network connections created or modified through NetworkManager would not be known to Netplan, so it was a one-way street. Activating the bidirectional NetworkManager-Netplan integration allows for any configuration change made through NetworkManager to be propagated back into Netplan. Changes made in Netplan itself will still be visible in NetworkManager, as before. This way, Netplan can be considered the “single source of truth” for network configuration across all variants of Ubuntu, with the network configuration stored in /etc/netplan/, using Netplan’s common and declarative YAML format.

Netplan Desktop integration

On workstations, the most common scenario is for users to configure networking through NetworkManager’s graphical interface, instead of driving it through Netplan’s declarative YAML files. Netplan ships a “libnetplan” library that provides an API to access Netplan’s parser and validation internals, which is now used by NetworkManager to store any network interface configuration changes in Netplan. For instance, network configuration defined through NetworkManager’s graphical UI or D-Bus API will be exported to Netplan’s native YAML format in the common location at /etc/netplan/. This way, the only thing administrators need to care about when managing a fleet of Desktop installations is Netplan. Furthermore, programmatic access to all network configuration is now easily accessible to other system components integrating with Netplan, such as snapd. This solution has already been used in more confined environments, such as Ubuntu Core and is now enabled by default on Ubuntu 23.10 Desktop.

Migration of existing connection profiles

On installation of the NetworkManager package (network-manager >= 1.44.2-1ubuntu1) in Ubuntu 23.10, all your existing connection profiles from /etc/NetworkManager/system-connections/ will automatically and transparently be migrated to Netplan’s declarative YAML format and stored in its common configuration directory /etc/netplan/

The same migration will happen in the background whenever you add or modify any connection profile through the NetworkManager user interface, integrated with GNOME Shell. From this point on, Netplan will be aware of your entire network configuration and you can query it using its CLI tools, such as “sudo netplan get” or “sudo netplan status” without interrupting traditional NetworkManager workflows (UI, nmcli, nmtui, D-Bus APIs). You can observe this migration on the apt-get command line, watching out for logs like the following:

Setting up network-manager (1.44.2-1ubuntu1.1) ...
Migrating HomeNet (9d087126-ae71-4992-9e0a-18c5ea92a4ed) to /etc/netplan
Migrating eduroam (37d643bb-d81d-4186-9402-7b47632c59b1) to /etc/netplan
Migrating DebConf (f862be9c-fb06-4c0f-862f-c8e210ca4941) to /etc/netplan

In order to prepare for a smooth transition, NetworkManager tests were integrated into Netplan’s continuous integration pipeline at the upstream GitHub repository. Furthermore, we implemented a passthrough method of handling unknown or new settings that cannot yet be fully covered by Netplan, making Netplan future-proof for any upcoming NetworkManager release.

The future of Netplan

Netplan has established itself as the proven network stack across all variants of Ubuntu – Desktop, Server, Cloud, or Embedded. It has been the default stack across many Ubuntu LTS releases, serving millions of users over the years. With the bidirectional integration between NetworkManager and Netplan the final piece of the puzzle is implemented to consider Netplan the “single source of truth” for network configuration on Ubuntu. With Debian choosing Netplan to be the default network stack for their cloud images, it is also gaining traction outside the Ubuntu ecosystem and growing into the wider open source community.

Within the development cycle for Ubuntu 24.04 LTS, we will polish the Netplan codebase to be ready for a 1.0 release, coming with certain guarantees on API and ABI stability, so that other distributions and 3rd party integrations can rely on Netplan’s interfaces. First steps into that direction have already been taken, as the Netplan team reached out to the Debian community at DebConf 2023 in Kochi/India to evaluate possible synergies.


Netplan can be used transparently to control a workstation’s network configuration and plays hand-in-hand with many desktop environments through its tight integration with NetworkManager. It allows for easy network monitoring, using common graphical interfaces and provides a “single source of truth” to network administrators, allowing for configuration of Ubuntu Desktop fleets in a streamlined and declarative way. You can try this new functionality hands-on by following the “Access Desktop NetworkManager settings through Netplan” tutorial.

If you want to learn more, feel free to follow our activities on, GitHub, Launchpad, IRC or our Netplan Developer Diaries blog on discourse.

Netplan v0.107 is now available

I’m happy to announce that Netplan version 0.107 is now available on GitHub and is soon to be deployed into a Linux installation near you! Six months and more than 200 commits after the previous version (including a .1 stable release), this release is brought to you by 8 free software contributors from around the globe.


Highlights of this release include the new configuration types for veth and dummy interfaces:

  version: 2
      peer: veth1
      peer: veth0

Furthermore, we implemented CFFI based Python bindings on top of libnetplan’s API, that can easily be consumed by 3rd party applications (see full example):

from netplan import Parser, State, NetDefinition
from netplan import NetplanException, NetplanParserException

parser = Parser()

# Parse the full, existing YAML config hierarchy

# Validate the final parser state
state = State()
    # validation of current state + new settings
except NetplanParserException as e:
    print('Error in', e.filename, 'Row/Col', e.line, e.column, '->', e.message)
except NetplanException as e:
    print('Error:', e.message)

# Walk through ethernet NetdefIDs in the state and print their backend
# renderer, to demonstrate working with NetDefinitionIterator &
# NetDefinition
for netdef in state.ethernets.values():
    print('Netdef',, 'is managed by:', netdef.backend)
    print('Is it configured to use DHCP?', netdef.dhcp4 or netdef.dhcp6)


Bug fixes:

A declarative approach to Linux networking with Netplan

Photo by Taylor Vick (Unsplash)

Linux networking can be confusing due to the wide range of technology stacks and tools in use, in addition to the complexity of the surrounding network environment. The configuration of bridges, bonds, VRFs or routes can be done programmatically, declaratively, manually or with automated with tools like ifupdown, ifupdown2, ifupdown-ng, iproute2, NetworkManager, systemd-networkd and others. Each  of these tools use different formats and locations to store their configuration files. Netplan, a utility for easily configuring networking on a Linux system, is designed to unify and standardise how administrators interact with these underlying technologies. Starting from a YAML description of the required network interfaces and what each should be configured to do, Netplan will generate all the necessary configuration for your chosen tool.

In this article, we will provide an overview of how Ubuntu uses Netplan to manage Linux networking in a unified way. By creating a common interface across two disparate technology stacks, IT administrators benefit from a unified experience across both desktops and servers whilst retaining the unique advantages of the underlying tech.

But first, let’s start with a bit of history and show where we are today.

The history of Netplan in Ubuntu

Starting with Ubuntu 16.10 and driven by the need to express network configuration in a common way across cloud metadata and other installer systems, we had the opportunity to switch to a network stack that integrates better with our dependency-based boot model. We chose systemd-networkd on server installations for its active upstream community and because it was already part of Systemd and therefore included in any Ubuntu base installation. It has a much better outlook for the future, using modern development techniques, good test coverage and CI integration, compared to the ifupdown tool we used previously. On desktop installations, we kept using NetworkManager due to its very good integration with the user interface.

Having to manage and configure two separate network stacks, depending on the Ubuntu variant in use, can be confusing, and we wanted to provide a streamlined user experience across any flavour of Ubuntu. Therefore, we introduced as a control layer above systemd-networkd and NetworkManager. Netplan takes declarative YAML files from /etc/netplan/ as an input and generates corresponding network configuration for the relevant network stack backend in /run/systemd/network/ or /run/NetworkManager/ depending on the system configuration. All while keeping full flexibility to control the underlying network stack in its native way if need be.

Design overview (

Who is using Netplan?

Recent versions of Netplan are available and ready to be installed on many distributions, such as Ubuntu, Fedora, RedHat Enterprise Linux, Debian and Arch Linux.


As stated above, Netplan has been installed by default on Ubuntu systems since 2016 and is therefore being used by millions of users across multiple long-term support versions of Ubuntu (18.04, 20.04, 22.04) on a day-to-day basis. This covers Ubuntu server scenarios primarily, such as bridges, bonding, VLANs, VXLANs, VRFs, IP tunnels or WireGuard tunnels, using systemd-networkd as the backend renderer.

On Ubuntu desktop systems, Netplan can be used manually through its declarative YAML configuration files, and it will handle those to configure the NetworkManager stack. Keep reading to get a glimpse of how this will be improved through automation and integration with the desktop stack in the future.


It might not be as obvious, but many people have been using Netplan without knowing about it when configuring a public cloud instance on AWS, Google Cloud or elsewhere through cloud-init. This is because cloud-init’s “Networking Config Version 2” is a passthrough configuration to Netplan, which will then set up the underlying network stack on the given cloud instance. This is why Netplan is also a key package on the Debian distribution, for example, as it’s being used by default on Debian cloud images, too.

Our vision for Linux networking

We know that Linux networking can be a beast, and we want to keep simple things simple. But also allow for custom setups of any complexity. With Netplan, the day-to-day networking needs are covered through easily comprehensible and nicely documented YAML files, that describe the desired state of the local network interfaces, which will be rendered into corresponding configuration files for the relevant network stack and applied at (re-)boot or at runtime, using the “netplan apply” CLI. For example /etc/netplan/lan.yaml:

  version: 2
  renderer: networkd
      dhcp4: true

Having a single source of truth for network configuration is also important for administrators, so they do not need to understand multiple network stacks, but can rely on the declarative data given in /etc/netplan/ to configure a system, independent of the underlying network configuration backend. This is also very helpful to seed the initial network configuration for new Linux installations, for example through installation systems such as Subiquity, Ubuntu’s desktop installer or cloud-init across the public and private clouds.

In addition to describing and applying network configuration, the “netplan status” CLI can be used to query relevant data from the underlying network stack(s), such as systemd-networkd, NetworkManager or iproute2, and present them in a unified way.

Netplan status (Debian)

At the Netplan project we strive for very high test automation and coverage with plenty of unit tests, integration tests and linting steps, across multiple Linux distros, which gives high confidence in also supporting more advanced networking use cases, such as Open vSwitch or SR-IOV network virtualization, in addition to normal wired (static IP, DHCP, routing), wireless (e.g. wwan modems, WPA2/3 connections, WiFi hotspot, controlling the regulatory domain, …) and common server scenarios.

Should there ever be a scenario that is not covered by Netplan natively, it allows for full flexibility to control the underlying network stack directly through systemd override configurations or NetworkManager passthrough settings in addition to having manual configuration side-by-side with interfaces controlled through Netplan.

The future of Netplan desktop integration

On workstations, the most common scenario is for end users to configure NetworkManager through its user interface tools, instead of driving it through Netplan’s declarative YAML files, which makes use of NetworkManager’s native configuration files. To avoid Netplan just handing over control to NetworkManager on such systems, we’re working on a bidirectional integration between NetworkManager and Netplan to further improve the “single source of truth” use case on Ubuntu desktop installations.

Netplan is shipping a “libnetplan” library that provides an API to access Netplan’s parser and validation internals, that can be used by NetworkManager to write back a network interface configuration. For instance, configuration given through NetworkManager’s UI tools or D-Bus API can be exported to Netplan’s native YAML format in the common location at /etc/netplan/. This way, administrators just need to care about Netplan when managing a fleet of Desktop installations. This solution is currently being used in more confined environments, like Ubuntu Core, when using the NetworkManager snap, and we will deliver it to generic Ubuntu desktop systems in 24.04 LTS.

In addition to NetworkManager, libnetplan can also be used to integrate with other tools in the networking space, such as cloud-init for improved validation of user data or installation systems when seeding new Linux images.


Overall, Netplan can be considered to be a good citizen within a network environment that plays hand-in-hand with other networking tools and makes it easy to control modern network stacks, such as systemd-networkd or NetworkManager in a common, streamlined and declarative way. It provides a “single source of truth” to network administrators about the network state, while keeping simple things simple, but allowing for arbitrarily complex custom setups.
If you want to learn more, feel free to follow our activities on, GitHub, Launchpad, IRC or our Netplan Developer Diaries blog on discourse.

Netplan and systemd-networkd on Debian Bookworm

Debian’s cloud-images are using systemd-networkd as their default network stack in Bookworm. A slim and feature rich networking daemon that comes included with Systemd itself. Debian’s cloud-images are deploying Netplan on top of this as an easy-to-use, declarative control layer.

If you want to experiment with systemd-networkd and Netplan on Debian, this can be done easily in QEMU using the official images. To start, you need to download the relevant .qcow2 Debian cloud-image from:

$ wget

Prepare a cloud image

Next, you need to prepare some configuration files for cloud-init and Netplan, to prepare a data-source (seed.img) for your local cloud-image.

$ cat > meta.yaml <<EOF
instance-id: debian01
local-hostname: cloudimg
$ cat > user.yaml <<EOF
ssh_pwauth: true
password: test
  expire: false
$ cat > netplan.yaml <<EOF
  version: 2
        macaddress: "ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa"
      dhcp4: true
      dhcp6: true
      set-name: lan0

Once all configuration is prepared, you can create the local data-source image, using the cloud-localds tool from the cloud-image-utils package:

$ cloud-localds --network-config=netplan.yaml seed.img user.yaml meta.yaml

Launch the local VM

Now, everything is prepared to launch a QEMU VM with two NICs and do some experimentation! The following command will launch an ephemeral environment for you, keeping the original Debian cloud-image untouched. If you want to preserve any changes on disk, you can remove the trailing -snapshot parameter.

$ qemu-system-x86_64 \
  -machine accel=kvm,type=q35 \
  -cpu host \
  -m 2G \
  -device virtio-net-pci,netdev=net0,mac=ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa \
  -netdev user,id=net0,hostfwd=tcp::2222-:22 \
  -nic user,model=virtio-net-pci,mac=f0:0d:ca:fe:00:bb \
  -drive if=virtio,format=qcow2,file=debian-12-generic-amd64.qcow2 \
  -drive if=virtio,format=raw,file=seed.img -snapshot

We set up the default debian user account through cloud-init’s user-data configuration above, so you can now login to the system, using that user with the (very unsafe!) password “test”.

$ ssh -o "StrictHostKeyChecking=no" -o "UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null" -p 2222 debian@localhost # password: test

Experience Netplan and systemd-networkd

Once logged in successfully, you can execute the netplan status command to check the system’s network configuration, as configured through cloud-init’s netplan.yaml passthrough. So you’ve already used Netplan at this point implicitly and it did all the configuration of systemd-networkd for you in the background!

debian@cloudimg:~$ sudo netplan status -a
     Online state: online
    DNS Addresses: (compat)
       DNS Search: .

●  1: lo ethernet UNKNOWN/UP (unmanaged)
      MAC Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00
           Routes: ::1 metric 256

●  2: enp0s2 ethernet DOWN (unmanaged)
      MAC Address: f0:0d:ca:fe:00:bb (Red Hat, Inc.)

●  3: lan0 ethernet UP (networkd: id0)
      MAC Address: ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa (Red Hat, Inc.)
        Addresses: (dhcp)
                   fe80::c8fe:caff:fefe:aa/64 (link)
    DNS Addresses:
           Routes: default via from metric 100 (dhcp)
          from metric 100 (link)
          from metric 100 (dhcp, link)
          from metric 100 (dhcp, link)
                   fe80::/64 metric 256
                   fec0::/64 metric 100 (ra)
                   default via fe80::2 metric 100 (ra)

As you can see from this output, the lan0 interface is configured via the “id0” Netplan ID to be managed by systemd-networkd. Compare this data to the netplan.yaml file above, the networkctl output, the local Netplan configuration in /etc/netplan/ and the auto-generated systemd-networkd configuration.

debian@cloudimg:~$ networkctl 
  1 lo     loopback carrier     unmanaged
  2 enp0s2 ether    off         unmanaged
  3 lan0   ether    routable    configured

3 links listed.

debian@cloudimg:~$ cat /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml 
# [...]
            dhcp4: true
            dhcp6: true
                macaddress: ca:fe:ca:fe:00:aa
            set-name: lan0
    version: 2

debian@cloudimg:~$ ls -l /run/systemd/network/
total 8
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  78 Jul  5 15:23
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 137 Jul  5 15:23

Now you can go ahead and try something more advanced, like link aggregation, using the second NIC that you configured for this QEMU VM and explore all the possibilities of Netplan on Debian, by checking the Netplan YAML documentation.

Netplan 0.106.1 stable release

We are happy to announce that Netplan 0.106.1 is available for download on Ubuntu Mantic Minotaur and Debian testing.

This release includes some improvements in our documentation and CI infrastructure and a number of bug fixes.

What’s new in Netplan 0.106.1?



  • canonical/setup-lxd GitHub action. The autopkgtest environment creation was standardized to use Canonical’s setup-lxd action.
  • Snapd integrations tests with spread. A new test set for the Snapd integration with Netplan was introduced using the spread tool.
  • DBus. A number of DBus integration tests were added to the Debian package.

New features

  • Keyfile parser improvements. Our Network Manager keyfile parser (the capability of loading Network Manager configuration to Netplan YAML) was expanded to support all the types of tunnels supported by Netplan.


  • Ubuntu’s Code of Conduct 2.0 was added to the code repository.
  • We added a new bash autocompletion script with all the Netplan’s subcommands.
  • The new release package was synchronized with Debian.

Bug fixes

  • Keyfile parser. This release contains a couple of important fixes for the NetworkManager integration stability: 1) adding WPA enterprise connections is now working fine and new test cases were added to the package; 2) a WireGuard peer with allowed IPs that don’t include the network prefix are now accepted.
  • Netplan parser. A number of memory leaks and stability issues were fixed.
  • DBus. An issue related to how directory paths are built in the Netplan DBus service was causing issues in the Snapd integration and was fixed.

For the complete list of changes please consult the debian/changelog file in

Netplan v0.106 is now available

I’m happy to announce that Netplan version 0.106 is now available on GitHub and is soon to be deployed into an Ubuntu/Debian/Fedora installation near you! Six months and 65 commits after the previous version, this release is brought to you by 4 free software contributors from around the globe.


Highlights of this release include the new netplan status command, which queries your system for IP addresses, routes, DNS information, etc… in addition to the Netplan backend renderer (NetworkManager/networkd) in use and the relevant Netplan YAML configuration ID. It displays all this in a nicely formatted way (or alternatively in machine readable YAML/JSON format).

Furthermore, we implemented a clean libnetplan API which can be used by external tools to parse Netplan configuration, migrated away from non-inclusive language (PR#303) and improved the overall Netplan documentation. Another change that should be noted, is that the match.macaddress stanza now only matches on PermanentMACAddress= on the systemd-networkd backend, as has been the case on the NetworkManager backend ever since (see PR#278 for background information on this slight change in behavior).


Bug fixes:

Netplan v0.105 is now available

I’m happy to announce that Netplan version 0.105 is now available on GitHub and is soon to be deployed into an Ubuntu/Debian installation near you! Six month and exactly 100 commits after the previous version, this release is brought to you by 7 free software contributors from around the globe.


  • Add support for VXLAN tunnels (#288), LP#1764716
  • Add support for VRF devices (#285), LP#1773522
  • Add support for InfiniBand (IPoIB) (#283), LP#1848471
  • Allow key configuration for GRE tunnels (#274), LP#1966476
  • Allow setting the regulatory domain (#281), LP#1951586
  • Documentation improvements & restructuring (#287)
  • Add meson build system (#268)
  • Add abigail ABI compatibility checker (#269)
  • Update of Fedora RPM spec (#264)
  • CI improvements (#265#282)
  • Netplan set uses the consolidated libnetplan YAML parser (#254)
  • Refactor ConfigManager to use the libnetplan YAML parser (#255)
  • New netplan_netdef_get_filepath API (#275)
  • Improve NetworkManager device management logic (#276), LP#1951653

Bug fixes